Connector is an indispensable part of electronic equipment, it is blocked in the circuit or isolated between the circuit, set up a bridge of communication so that the current flow so that the circuit to achieve a predetermined function. The form and structure of connector pin arrangement are kaleidoscopic, with different application objects, frequency, power, application environment, there are different forms of connectors. Although there are many types of connectors, the basic performance can be classified into three categories: mechanical, electrical and environmental.
In terms of the function of plugin, plug - out force is an important mechanical property.Insert pull force cent is inserted force and pull out force (pull out force also calls detached force), the requirement of both is different.The maximum insertion force and minimum separation force are specified in the relevant standards, which indicates that the insertion force is small from the point of view of use (hence the structure with low insertion force LIF and no insertion force ZIF), and that a small separation force will affect the reliability of the contact.
Another important mechanical property is the mechanical life of the connector. Machine life is actually a kind of durability index. They refer to it as machine operation in GB5095. It is based on a cycle of one insert and one pull out, and it is judged by whether the pin arrangement of the connector can normally complete its connection function (such as contact resistance value) after the specified plug and pull cycle. The insertion force and mechanical life of the connector are related to the structure of the contact piece (positive pressure) and the coating quality of the contact part (sliding friction coefficient) as well as the dimension accuracy of the contact piece arrangement (alignment degree).
Vibration and impact performance: vibration and impact resistance is an important performance of electronic connectors, especially in special application environments such as aviation and aerospace, railway and road transport, it is an important indicator to test the robustness of electrical connector mechanical structure and electrical contact reliability. There are clear rules in the relevant test methods. The peak acceleration, duration and pulse waveform of the shock, as well as the time of interruption of electrical continuity, shall be specified in the shock test.
Contact resistance: high quality electrical connectors should have low and stable contact resistance.The contact resistance of the connector varies from a few milliohms to tens of milliohms.The factors that affect contact resistance include: resistivity of the surface material of the contact piece, contact pressure, contact area, shape of the contact piece, surface condition (relative cleanliness roughness and hardness), current size, open-circuit voltage of the contact place when the current is cut off, temperature and thermal conductivity of the conductor, etc.
Electrical strength, or voltage resistance, medium voltage resistance, is the ability to withstand rated test voltage between connector contacts or between contacts and enclosure. Measurement method is between plug and socket contact element and contact element and shell in the indirect regulation time higher than its working voltage test voltage applied, to determine the correctness of the space between insulation, insulation, insulation structure, the flaws of the workpieces, examination electric connector row needles, tolerance, surge and similar phenomenon caused by the transient overvoltage
Insulation resistance is a measure of the insulation performance between the contacts of electrical connectors and between the contacts and the shell. The order of magnitude is from hundreds to thousands of megohm. It is determined by the dielectric capacity of the dielectric, the greater the insulation resistance, the better. Insulation resistance cannot be equated with withstand voltage. Since insulation materials are mixed or synthesized from different materials, their insulation resistance is naturally different. Therefore, the measurement of insulation resistance cannot completely replace measurement of cleanliness or losslessness.
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